Breeders routinely have this procedure carried out on male ferrets and sheep to manipulate the estrus cycles of in-contact females.
Artificial Insemination in Dogs
It is uncommon in other animal species. Because a vasectomy is usually a more expensive procedure, among pet-keepers it is more often performed on show animals , to cosmetically preserve their appearance though depending upon the fancier organization , the procedure may invalidate the animal's candidacy for certain awards, or relegate it to a non- pedigree , generic "household pet" competition division, just as with full castration. Tubal ligation : Snipping and tying of fallopian tubes as a sterilization measure can be performed on female cats, dogs, and other species; it is essentially the female equivalent of vasectomy, but a more invasive procedure.
Risk of unwanted pregnancies is insignificantly small. Only a few veterinarians perform the procedure. Like other forms of neutering, vasectomy and tubal ligation eliminate the ability to produce offspring. They differ from neutering in that they leave the animal's levels and patterns of sex hormone unchanged. Both sexes will retain their normal reproductive behavior, and other than birth control, none of the advantages and disadvantages listed above apply. This method is favored by some people who seek minimal infringement on the natural state of companion animals to achieve the desired reduction of unwanted births of cats and dogs.
This is done to stimulate and identify estrous females without the risk of transmitting venereal diseases or causing a pregnancy by a male other than the one intended for selective breeding. Animals altered for this purpose are referred to as teasers teaser bulls, etc.
Several methods are used. Penile translocation surgically alters the penis to point far enough away from its normal direction that it cannot manage vaginal penetration.
Penile fixation permanently attaches the penis to the abdomen so that it cannot be lowered for penetration. Penectomy is the partial or complete removal of the penis. Early-age neutering, also known as pediatric spaying or prepubertal gonadectomy, is the removal of the ovaries or testes before the onset of puberty. While the age-unrelated risks and benefits cited above also apply to early-age neutering, various studies have indicated that the procedure is safe and not associated with increased mortality or serious health and behavioral problems when compared to conventional age neutering.
One study showed the incidence of hip dysplasia increased to 6. There was no association between age of neutering and arthritis or long-bone fractures.
The first study from , published in a well-known interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal  demonstrated "no cases of CCL cruciate ligament tear diagnosed in intact males or females, but in early-neutered males and females the occurrences were 5 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Almost 10 percent of early-neutered males were diagnosed with LSA lymphosarcoma , 3 times more than intact males. The percentage of HSA hemangiosarcoma cases in late-neutered females about 8 percent was 4 times more than intact and early-neutered females. There were no cases of MCT mast cell tumor in intact females, but the occurrence was nearly 6 percent in late-neutered females".
The second study from  highlighted significant difference in closely related breeds retrievers , suggesting that inter-breed variability is quite high and that sweeping legal measures and surgical mandates are not the best solutions to canine welfare and health. Specifically the study states: "In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at 6 months doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes.
In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at 6 months increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4—5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3—4 times.
In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. In terms of behavior in dogs, separation anxiety, aggression, escape behavior and inappropriate elimination are reduced while noise phobia and sexual behavior was increased.
In males with aggression issues, earlier neutering may increase barking.
In male cats, occurrence of abscesses, aggression toward veterinarians, sexual behaviors, and urine spraying was decreased, while hiding was increased. Various studies of the effects neutering has overall on male and female dog aggression have been unable to arrive at a consensus. A possible reason for this according to two studies is changes to other factors have more of an effect than neutering. The most commonly observed behavioral problem in spayed females was fearful behavior and the most common problem in males was aggression.
A specialized vocabulary is used in animal husbandry and animal fancy for neutered castrated animals:. While there are differing views in Islam with regard to neutering animals,  some Islamic associations have stated that when done to maintain the health and welfare of both the animals and the community, neutering is allowed on the basis of ' maslaha ' general good  or "choos[ing] the lesser of two evils".
Orthodox Judaism forbids the castration of both humans and non-human animals by Jews,  except in lifesaving situations.
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See also: Gelding. See also: Chemical castration.
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This article contains a pro and con list , which is sometimes inappropriate. Please help improve it by integrating both sides into a more neutral presentation, or remove this template if you feel that such a list is appropriate for this article. April Archived from the original on 8 October October Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.
Veterinary Medicine. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Bite scenarios and prevention".
But if they do, they get slut-shamed and learn their lesson and blah blah blah. In my opinion, there is a much bigger issue at stake than whether or not books should have been removed from Bitch List. Thanks for hosting great discussions, and for taking the time and energy to work through what are genuinely challenging and worthwhile discussions to have.
Self-Publishers Should Not Be Called Authors
JL- Oh my goodness. I had like a 20 minute rant in my head over a lot of what you said. I felt like that one page just colored their entire view of the book. I felt like they were just trying to find other reasons to hate it besides that one page because giving a book an F based on one page?
I felt as if they wanted the book to be hunky dory and that it was a perfect world where Scarlett absolutely loved protecting the ignorant girls.
- With This Ring (A Lexie Starr Mystery, Book 4).
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If every single character or even a majority thought that, then yes, I would agree with you. They said these thoughts because they are in the business of saving these girls from wolves. Does that make it right? Does it make sense to their characters and what their job is though?